None of these precedents exist anywhere else. For Said, “Orientalism” or the Western construction of the “imaginary Orient” was fashioned by Europeans through practices of writing, which had the effect of representing the Other, the East. The European encounter with the alien culture was not only a cultural clash but also a meeting between unequals. Orientalism became a textual grid through which “The Orient” was filtered into Western consciousness.In saying that the West was a prevailing ideology, Said borrowed the concept of hegemony or prevailing “cultural form” from a new influence on Post-Colonial theory, Antonio Gramsci (1891 – 1937) and his odd assortment of Prison Notebooks from 1929-1935 . His expertise on the subject also stems, besides his first-hand experience in British schools, from his analysis of the works of Balzac, Baudelaire and Lautréamont. But Middle-Eastern technology and science ceased to develop,precisely at the moment when Europe and more specifically Western Europe was advancing to new heights. This false attitude towards eastern culture comes from the falsely romanticized images of Asia. In Lacanian language, the Orient is the narcissistic reversal of the fictional Self of the Occident or the “idea” of Europe. Edward W. Said led a life influenced much influenced by colonialism and post-colonialism. The Oriental is “irrational, depraved, fallen, childlike, different”, while the European is “rational, virtuous, mature, normal”. A modern alternative to SparkNotes and CliffsNotes, SuperSummary offers high-quality study guides that feature detailed chapter summaries and analysis of major themes, characters, quotes, and essay … In “Orientalism” he redefines the term ‘orientalism’ as the prejudice against Arabo-islamic peoples from a Eurocentric point of view. The post colonialism mainly explores ... of the English muse with ... influenced by Gramsci’s notion of hegemonic culture ... their ambiguous place in ... can be viewed as ... that also feels and “ ... ... English speakers are from diverse culture backgrounds and are deeply influenced by their indigenous culture. The language must be created for the Other to be spoken of and for the discourse to be constructed. These literary characterizations fulfilled two needs, first to justify the domination of one group over the other and second to create an identity for the dominant group. Colonialism and post-colonialism has had an immense impact on Said at a very young age and has therefore shaped his entire being. The Western imagination was fevered by thoughts of the depravity of the East and, although Said did not discuss art, by the second decade of the nineteenth century, Ingres was painting his many paintings of the legendary harems and Delacroix actually paid a visit to the secluded ladies of Algiers. The Reception (1873) The imperialist stance and language is part of the discourse of Orientalism, which is an example of how the powerful represent the powerless. Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. Orientalism as a practice of writing was mainly a British and French enterprise due to the particular closeness of these nations with the “Orient.” Another way of expressing this “closeness” is to point to the long history of colonialism and imperialism by these two nations in the Middle East. Not only could Western powers come and go in the Middle East as they pleased, but it was also at this time that the East became the object of the European gaze. It is rather a distribution of geopolitical awareness into aesthetic, scholarly, economic, sociological, historical, and philological texts; it is an elaboration not only of a basic geographical distinction (the world is made up of two unequal halves, Orient and Occident) but also a whole series of “interests” which, by means as scholarly discovery, philological reconstruction, it not only creates but also maintains; it is rather than expresses, a certain will  or intention to understand, in some cases to control, manipulate, even to incorporate,what is a manifestly different (or alternative and novel) world; it is, above all, a discourse that is by no means in direct, corresponding relationship with political power in the raw, but rather is produced and and exists in an uneven exchange with various kinds of power.. Said wrote that the Western writers had a strategic location, or a location of power, from which s/he writes texts that become part of a strategic formation or a discourse where the “oriental studies” reside. Thanks for exploring this SuperSummary Study Guide of “Orientalism” by Edward Said. (Find a price that suits your requirements), * Save 10% on First Order, discount promo code "096K2". He condemns the act of seeing Arabo-islamic peoples as only two types of peoples: terrorists and Oil-suppliers. Said, following Foucault, stated that “Orientalism” is a discourse, a whole network of interests. In the privileged precincts of Columbia University, Said joined the “cultural turn,” in which literary theory and Foucauldrian discourse became methodological tools through which to view culture. The Orient is not a fact of nature but an idea that has a history with its own vocabulary and its own imagery. Orientalism as a European textual construction is implicated with colonial authority and is a product of exteriority in which the Orientalist is the one who represents the Orient as the other. The book also includes good examples of early postcolonial literary criticism. As was noted in an earlier post, the European concern with the East can be traced back as far as the religious clash between Christianity and Islam that began in the seventh century and continues today. Edward Said. In the West, democracy developed within a religion that, even when it when it was the dominant religion, elaborated a distinction between what was God’s and what was Ceasar’s. The technological gap between East and West was signaled by the stunning victory of Napoléon over the Egyptians in 1794 (where his army discovered marijuana. It is at this point in time, the early decades of the 19th century, when the West was actively changing the West, Lewis wrote, This is also shown in Said’s memoir ‘Out of Place’, when he lets go of the delusion of being English and succumbs to his Arab nature; he develops unforeseen powers and bests his classmates in a contest of swimming and a wrestling match; where he at first seemed to be losing but then gave in to his Arab-self. Between 1815 and 1914, Europeans directly controlled 85% of the globe. According to Austin (1962) in his speech acts theory , there are three actions related to speech acts. Then we had the age of discovery. Orientalism became a textual grid through which “The Orient” was filtered into Western consciousness.In saying that the West was a prevailing ideology, Said borrowed the concept of hegemony or prevailing “cultural form” from a new influence on Post-Colonial theory, Antonio Gramsci (1891 – 1937) and his odd assortment of Prison Notebooks from 1929-1935 . People had always lived in territories that had a Muslim history but in order for these groups to be elucidated they had to be discursively constructed–named and studied and controlled. The Oriental is “irrational, depraved, fallen, childlike, different”, while the European is “rational, virtuous, mature, normal”. When Said established a literary or discursive  “field” in which “the Orient” is constructed through language and representation, he was following the concepts of Foucault. Through historical circumstances, it was the Western regions who “advanced” technologically faster than the East and thus it was the Europeans who took it upon themselves to name the regions, “The West” and “The East,” “The Occident” and The Orient.” Today to merely use these terms is Eurocentric–Europe is at the center of the world and all other regions relate to it–a totally imperialist position. Then we had the age of discovery. A generation after that of Albert Memmi and Aime Cesaire and Frantz Fanon, Said was more of a New Yorker than a colonized individual and belongs to the postmodern phenomenon of the global diaspora. Thank you. Foucault’s impact can be discerned clearly in traces: the repeated exhortations as to what Said is not saying and the long meandering sentences with endless pauses with semi-colons. Young, Robert J. C. Postcolonialism: An Historical Introduction. “It hardly needs to demonstrated again that language itself is a highly organized and encoded system, which employs many devices to express, indicate, exchange messages and information, represent and so forth.” As a result of this “representation,” regardless of the century, the Orient is always fixed in time and place in the mind of the West and the represented “history” of the “Orient” is conceived of as a series of responses to the West which is always the actor and judge of Oriental behavior. Orientalism Summary and Study Guide. Prior to the war, it was assumed that the Orient was in "need of Western enlightenment" and "domination." Thus the Orient is made clear to the Westerner, and the representation of the East functions in terms of traditions, conventions, and codes. It is argued that post colonialism is the continuation of colonialism, by where colonies get freedom only from political rule, creating the complex process of self-imposed colonialism. It is rather a distribution of geopolitical awareness into aesthetic, scholarly, economic, sociological, historical, and philological texts; it is an elaboration not only of a basic geographical distinction (the world is made up of two unequal halves, Orient and Occident) but also a whole series of “interests” which, by means as scholarly discovery, philological reconstruction, it not only creates but also maintains; it is rather than expresses, a certain will  or intention to understand, in some cases to control, manipulate, even to incorporate,what is a manifestly different (or alternative and novel) world; it is, above all, a discourse that is by no means in direct, corresponding relationship with political power in the raw, but rather is produced and and exists in an uneven exchange with various kinds of power.. The unit topics are Postcolonialism and Chinua Achebe's "Things Fall Apart." It is obvious that “culture” is neither nature nor natural, but how is culture made and for what purposes? The disparity was gradual but progressive. In other words, Kissinger assumed that the experience of the Enlightenment is necessary for “civilization”. Said’s approach is the first fully developed  analysis of Post-Colonialism that is impersonal, intellectual, and yet in the tradition of engaged scholarship. The Orient is insinuating and dangerous; and Western rationality is undermined by Eastern excesses. The East is a European construction that facilitates a very real relationship of power and domination between West and East. Edward Said made the point that this binary opposition based upon the semiotics of power results in paternalistic or aggressive foreign policy decisions. Orientalism is ‘a manner of regularized (or Orientalized) writing, vision, and study, d… Dr. Jeanne S. M. Willette and Art History Unstuffed. As Foucault stated in Discipline and Punish, to see is to produce knowledge and to have power. “It hardly needs to demonstrated again that language itself is a highly organized and encoded system, which employs many devices to express, indicate, exchange messages and information, represent and so forth.” As a result of this “representation,” regardless of the century, the Orient is always fixed in time and place in the mind of the West and the represented “history” of the “Orient” is conceived of as a series of responses to the West which is always the actor and judge of Oriental behavior. Henry Kissinger, architect of the last stage of the Viet Nam War, divided the world in terms of the colonizer: there are those societies which are pre-Newtonian and post-Newtonian, undeveloped and developed. That doesn’t exist in any other religion. His quotations reflect upon his past: “Every empire, however, tells itself and the world that it is unlike all other empires, that its mission is not to plunder and control but to educate and liberate.” – Edward W. Said. Edward Said lived long enough to witness September 11th an event that elevated Bernard Lewis to a consultant to the Bush administration. Foucault’s impact can be discerned clearly in traces: the repeated exhortations as to what Said is not saying and the long meandering sentences with endless pauses with semi-colons. The European encounter with the alien culture was not only a cultural clash but also a meeting between unequals. It derives in part from the fact that there is no such thing … If the Orient could represent itself, it would; but it cannot, and therefore, it is the task of the Orientalist to represent the silenced culture. In the year 2007, Kissenger warned against imposing Western ideas upon a region that did not share the same history. Orientalism was a collective European notion of European superiority with the West having the upper hand. The British imbibed the drug as a “medicine” and the Queen herself used hashish for menstrual cramps.). © Art History Unstuffed. Edward Said, the Palestinian American, and the notable academic and lecturer, had been the professor of comparative literature at Colombia University for a long time until his death of leukemia in 2003. If you have found this material useful, please give credit to. Dr. Jeanne S. M. Willette and Art History Unstuffed. Under the scientific gaze of Europeans, Egypt and by extension the Holy Land became an object of study and a place of imaginative exploration. His assumptions were based upon the supposed superiority of Western—Newtonian—scientific, rational thinking that produced “superior” technological society. Academically, the term refers to the act of studying or otherwise engaging with the Orient. Not only could Western powers come and go in the Middle East as they pleased, but it was also at this time that the East became the object of the European gaze. Here you can order a professional work. Edward Wadie Said (/ s ɑː ˈ iː d /; Arabic: إدوارد وديع سعيد ‎ [wædiːʕ sæʕiːd], Idwārd WadÄ«Ê¿ SaÊ¿Ä«d; 1 November 1935 – 24 September 2003) was a professor of literature at Columbia University, a public intellectual, and a founder of the academic field of postcolonial studies. The tropes of Orientalism were collections of free-floating fragments that were accumulated into units of knowledge. Some centuries earlier, the Islamic Middle East had led he world in science and technology, including devices for measuring time. London: Blackwell, 2001. Postcolonialism is the critical academic study of the cultural legacy of colonialism and imperialism, focusing on the human consequences of the control and exploitation of colonized people and their lands. Colonialism’s influence on Said, and hence his negative view of it, is also expressed by the way he constantly feels out of place in the colonists school system, with guards patrolling the premises, and generally feels out of place for the rest of his life even after the colonists have left again. Thank you. Blog. According to Said’s arch intellectual enemy, Bernard Lewis, Professor Emeritus at Princeton, the Middle East had deliberately made the collective cultural decision to eschew Western scientific modernism and thus “missed” the Enlightenment at a crucial moment. Someone had to be an outcast. Under the scientific gaze of Europeans, Egypt and by extension the Holy Land became an object of study and a place of imaginative exploration. Despite the harsh colonial oppressors Said became an accomplished writer and critique. Soon everyone was inhaling and Baudelaire writes under the spell of the weed. By the beginning of the Nineteenth Century, the Orient was but a shadow of its former self. Like a mirror, the images reverse each other with the privileging on the side of the Occident. This land, Holy to Christian and Muslim, this territory that was an eternal historical battleground trod over by many civilizations was the starting point for Said who turned the intellectual tables on the West. E-mail … I INTRODUCTION hile conversations between law and postcolonialism … Orientalism was a collective European notion of European superiority with the West having the upper hand. In the year 2007, Kissenger warned against imposing Western ideas upon a region that did not share the same history, postcolonial theory has been used increasingly as a methodology to re- 42 search issues dealing with the nature of cultural identity, gender, race, so- cial class, ethnicity, and nationality in postcolonial societies. Foucault posited the power of the “gaze” of the One that would then represent the Other. European culture gained in strength and identity be setting itself up against the Orient, so, as Said stated, the two geographic entities support and reflect each other–as opposites in a mirror. The European encounter with the alien culture was not only a cultural clash but also a meeting between unequals. Said's Orientalism deals with the Western structuring of the orient as "other". Thus seeing (the gaze of the authority) produces knowledge, which produces power. Thank you. Forty years later and two invasions of Iraq later, Orientalism was still one of the best known books, widely read in theory but completely ignored in practice. These literary characterizations fulfilled two needs, first to justify the domination of one group over the other and second to create an identity for the dominant group. Said, following Foucault, stated that “Orientalism” is a discourse, a whole network of interests. Labels: book summary, Edward Said, Orientalism, postcolonialism. from former Secretary of State, Henry Kissenger, stating the the problem of the Middle East that the region did not experience the Enlightenment to the more recent work of scholar Bernard Lewis who insisted that the Muslim nations deliberately refused to participate in Modernism, the “Orient” has been seen as the uncivilized, barbaric, backward Other. Said wrote that the Western writers had a strategic location, or a location of power, from which s/he writes texts that become part of a strategic formation or a discourse where the “oriental studies” reside. The Orient is divided into two spaces: the Near East and the Far East, but this Orient is but a stage where the East is confined. By the seventies, Marxism had been folded into a postmodern theory of representation which is where “Orientalism” can be located. Some centuries earlier, the Islamic Middle East had led he world in science and technology, including devices for measuring time. Orientalism In the year 2007, Kissenger warned against imposing Western ideas upon a region that did not share the same history, It should be rewritten to ensure and promote a peaceful diversity of cultures, a world where differences are not shunned but welcomed and celebrated. The Orient was contained and represented within the dominating framework. ..Orientalism is not a mere political subject matter or field that is reflected passively by culture, scholarship, or institutions; nor is it a large and diffuse collection of texts about the Orient’ nor is it representative and expressive of some nefarious “Western” imperialist plot to hold down the “Oriental” world. The rise of Orientalism as a system of representation coincides with the rise of European empires. Perhaps the most influential and widely read Post-Colonial critic was the late Edward Said  (1935 – 2003) a Palestinian intellectual who was born in Jerusalem and died in exile in America. The Orient is penalized for being outside the system of Western Christianity’s morality. meet characters who are struggling with their identities in the wake of colonization If the Orient could represent itself, it would; but it cannot, and therefore, it is the task of the Orientalist to represent the silenced culture. The network of discursive structures was put in place by European scholars over time with the intention to understand (to produce knowledge) in order to control and manipulate a very different world: the Orient. The basic assumptions that underly the book include the historical fact of European colonial domination and imperialist exploitation that put European scholars in the position to gaze upon the exotic other and to study this alien otherness for European purposes. [email protected]. Jan. 26, 2021. Foucault dated the habit of Western Othering from the post-Medieval substitution of the leper with the mad person as the Other in society. The tropes of Orientalism were collections of free-floating fragments that were accumulated into units of knowledge. ..Orientalism is not a mere political subject matter or field that is reflected passively by culture, scholarship, or institutions; nor is it a large and diffuse collection of texts about the Orient’ nor is it representative and expressive of some nefarious “Western” imperialist plot to hold down the “Oriental” world. The technological gap between East and West was signaled by the stunning victory of Napoléon over the Egyptians in 1794 (where his army discovered marijuana. That said, Michel Foucault’s elaboration on the “discourse” is probably the most important of Said’s intellectual influences. The language must be created for the Other to be spoken of and for the discourse to be constructed. 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