0000007762 00000 n The greatest departure from most designs now in operation is that many incorporate passive or inherent safety features* which require no active controls or operational intervention to avoid accidents in the event of malfunction, and may rely on gravity, natural convection or resistance to high temperatures. tion ofLWRs (ABWR & APWR) will utilize fuel cycles that increase the energy contributed by plutonium. Atomenergoproekt says that the AES-2006 conforms to both Russian standards and European Utilities Requirements (EUR). %PDF-1.3 %���� More are planned in Japan and four are planned in the UK. Significant improvements in fuel science could be achieved through better control of the chemistry at interfaces within the fuel element [2-5]. It is designed for 100-year plant life and is expected to utilise 65% of the energy of the fuel, with two-thirds of that energy coming from thorium via U-233. The first units are planned for Kursk II and Smolensk II in Russia. This will have two reactor modules, each of 250 MWt/105 MWe (equivalent), with a single steam generator, and using 8.5% enriched fuel (245,000 elements) giving 90 GWd/t discharge burnup. So-called Generation III (and III+) are the advanced reactors discussed in this paper, though the distinction from Generation II is arbitrary. This means that potentially the unit can change its output from 25% to 100% in less than 30 minutes, though this may be at some expense of wear and tear. It is being developed by General Atomics in partnership with Russia's OKBM Afrikantov, supported by Fuji (Japan). The CANDU (Canada Deuterium Uranium) is a Canadian pressurized heavy-water reactor design used to generate electric power. Much of the one million man-hours of work involved in developing this US EPR was said to be making the necessary changes to output electricity at 60 Hz instead of the original design's 50 Hz. The capital cost is expected to be much the same as that of the VVER-1200. The VVER-1500 model was being developed by Gidropress. The ESBWR is more innovative, with lower building costs due to modular construction, lower operating costs, 24-month refuelling cycle and a 60-year operating lifetime. Toshiba outlines development from its 1400 MWe class to a 1500-1600 MWe class unit (4300 MWt). Four units operating in China and under construction in the USA; many units planned in China (as CAP1000). Here is a discussion of current and advanced CANDU fuel strategies. OECD NEA 2001, Trends in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Calculated large release frequency (for radioactivity) is generally about ten times less than CDF. In February 2008 the NRC accepted an application from Westinghouse to amend the AP1000 design, and this review was completed with revised design certification in December 2011. The possible options for advanced fuel cycles in CANDU reactors including actinide burning options and thorium cycles were explored and are feasible options to increase the efficiency of uranium utilization and help close the fuel cycle. The ABWR has also been certified as meeting European utility requirements for advanced reactors and is undergoing the generic design assessment process in the UK (see below). Further reduced possibility of core melt accidents.*. At the commercial level, by the end of 2006 three major Western-Japanese alliances had formed in the world reactor supply market, and since then another has become prominent: Ten years later, in 2016, Westinghouse has collaborated with China’s State Nuclear Power Technology Corporation (SNPTC) in developing the AP1000 design to a CAP1000 and also a larger CAP-1400, and China is gaining a high profile as reactor vendor alongside Russia’s Rosatom. A standard 100-50-100% daily load follow operation has been considered in the reactor core design as well as in the plant control systems." Assuming that a 40 MWd/kg exit burnup was achieved in the CANDU reactors, the fuel cycle yielded an 82% savings of natural uranium, compared to a scenario in which all power came from PWRs, while a 20 MWd/kg exit burnup increased the savings to 94%. Canadian design certification is under way. 0000076093 00000 n Produced at manufacturing facilities in Peterborough, Toronto and Arnprior, Ontario, BWXT has supplied nuclear fuel bundles to CANDU® stations since the early 1950s. The ACR will run on low-enriched uranium (about 1.5-2.0% U-235) with high burn-up, extending the fuel life by about three times and reducing high-level waste volumes accordingly. Two units operating in China, under construction in Finland and France. (Moderated and mostly cooled by heavy water) In Canada, the government-owned Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd (AECL) had two designs under development which are based on its reliable CANDU-6 reactors, the most recent of which are operating in China. 0000006843 00000 n Plant life is envisaged as 40 years with 85% load factor. The first units under construction are Fangchenggang 3&4 (CGN) and Fuqing 5&6 (CNNC). The PBMR would ultimately have a direct-cycle (Brayton cycle) gas turbine generator and thermal efficiency about 41%, the helium coolant leaving the bottom of the core at about 900°C and driving a turbine. China's Hualong One are under review. The AP1000 gained US design certification in 2005, and UK generic design assessment approval in 2017. Deuterium is the primary element in heavy water, and uranium is the fuel used in this reactor … A demonstration unit is planned at Seversk by 2022, and 1200 MWe (2800 MWt) units are proposed. * Sizewell B: 520,000 m3 concrete (438 m3/MWe), 65,000 t rebar (55 t/MWe);  Using such certified designs, US utilities are able to obtain a single NRC licence to both construct and operate a reactor before construction begins. The first ones are in operation in Japan and others are under construction in several countries. Commercialisation envisaged after 2020. Another US-origin but international project which is a few years behind the AP1000 is the IRIS (International Reactor Innovative & Secure). China operates 22 nuclear power reactors, including two Candu 6 reactors at Qinshan that have been in … Initially it is being run with one-fifth MOX fuel, but will have a full MOX core from about 2020. In 2007 AECL applied for UK generic design assessment (pre-licensing approval) but then withdrew after the first stage. The AHWR is a 300 MWe gross (284 MWe net, 920 MWt) reactor moderated by heavy water at low pressure. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) gave final design certification for both in May 1997, noting that they exceeded NRC "safety goals by several orders of magnitude". As the GDA for the EPR design proceeded, issues arose which were in common with new capacity being built elsewhere, particularly the EPR units in Finland and France. Those bid for Temelin are quoted as 1158 MWe gross,1078 MWe net. AECL Candu-6 & ACR publicity, late 2005 In the USA plans to build as Detroit Edison’s Fermi 3 and Dominion’s North Anna 3 are not proceeding. These comprise one-third of all construction and can be built offsite in parallel with the onsite construction. It has been built in China at Sanmen and Haiyang, and is under construction at Vogtle in the USA. Exports are intended. It has double containment with four separate, redundant active safety systems, and boasts a core catcher under the pressure vessel. 2003, Advanced Heavy Water Reactor, INS News vol 16, 1 All licensing progress has ceased. 0000003654 00000 n Two more (V466B variant) were planned for Belene in Bulgaria. 0000005428 00000 n It is based on the ABWR architecture but has a shorter, flatter pancake-shaped core and a tight lattice to ensure sufficient fast neutron leakage and a negative void reactivity coefficient. It was chosen for the United Arab Emirates (UAE) nuclear programme on the basis of cost and reliable building schedule, and four units are under construction there, with the first expected online in 2020. After 30 years of development it represents GEH's Generation IV solution to closing the fuel cycle. It is 1455 MWe gross in Korean conditions according to an IAEA status report, 1350-1400 MWe net (3983 – nominal 4000 MWt) with two-loop primary circuit. Atomenergoproekt website. Russia has experimented with several lead-cooled reactor designs, and used lead-bismuth cooling for 40 years in reactors for its seven Alfa class submarines. A related development has been the merging of accelerator and fission reactor technologies to generate electricity and transmute long-lived radioactive wastes. These use the uranium-238 in reactor fuel as well as the fissile U-235 isotope used in most reactors, and can readily use the world’s 1.5 million tonnes of depleted uranium as fuel. Estonia once expressed interest in building a pair of IRIS. Adopting light water cooling and a more compact core reduces capital cost, and because the reactor is run at higher temperature and coolant pressure, it has higher thermal efficiency. The ACR design is based on the use of modular horizontal fuel channels surrounded by a heavy water moderator, the same feature as in all CANDU2 reactors. It is a four-loop design derived from the German Konvoi types with features from the French N4, and was expected to provide power about 10% cheaper than the N4. (In the demonstration plant it would transfer heat in a steam generator rather than driving a turbine directly.) The Atmea1 has been developed by the Atmea joint venture established in 2007 by Areva NP and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries to produce an evolutionary 1100-1150 MWe net (3150 MWt) three-loop PWR using the same steam generators as EPR. Westinghouse earlier claimed a 36-month construction time to fuel loading. It is led by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and involves the IAEA. Areva NP (formerly Framatome ANP) developed a large (4590 MWt, typically 1750 MWe gross and 1630 MWe net) European pressurised water reactor (EPR), which was accepted in mid-1995 as the new standard design for France and received French design approval in 2004. Plutonium production will be less than in light water reactors, and the fissile proportion will be less and the Pu-238 portion three times as high, giving inherent proliferation resistance. The fissile plutonium content will decrease from an initial 75% to 25% at equilibrium discharge burn-up level. Seismic rating is 300 gal. It has three active and passive redundant safety systems and an additional backup cooling chain, similar to EPR. Matzie R.A. 2003, PBMR - the first Generation IV reactor to be constructed, WNA Symposium Outer: 24 pins Th-Pu-239 with 3.25% Pu. In September 2016 an agreement among SNC-Lavalin, CNNC and Shanghai Electric Group was to set up a joint venture in mid-2017 to develop, market and build the AFCR, with NUE fuel. About 400 reactor-years of operating experience have been accumulated. Each has a kernel of uranium oxycarbide, with the uranium enriched up to 17% U-235. Greater use of burnable absorbers ('poisons') to extend fuel life. The calandria has about 450 vertical pressure tubes and the coolant is pressurised light water boiling at 285ºC and circulated by convection. A third-generation standardised VVER-1200 (V-392M and V-491) reactor of 1198 MWe gross (with cool water) and 3212 MWt is in the AES-2006 plant. The first units are likely to be built at Sinop in Turkey. The commercial-scale plant concept, part of an 'Advanced Recycling Center', uses three power blocks (six reactor modules) to provide 1866 MWe. DRU fuel is similar to the already proven natural uranium equivalent (NUE) fuel in that it is composed of RU, from reprocessed pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent fuel but has a slightly higher fissile content (contains about 0.95%wt. These reactors are in the 1300 megawatt range. It will also efficiently burn MOX fuel, thorium and actinides. The size range envisaged is 350 to 1150 MWe, depending on the number of fuel channels used. The used fuel pool is below ground level. In China, there are two indigenous designs based on a French predecessor but developed with modern features. Japan plans to develop FBRs, and its Joyo experimental reactor which has been operating since 1977 is now being boosted to 140 MWt. The Japanese version of it differs in allowing modular construction, so is not identical to that licensed in the USA. The NRC chairman said that the revised AP1000 design is one that seems to most fully meet the expectations of the commission’s policy statement on advanced reactors. The preliminary design stage was completed in 2001, but the program has stalled since. However, all transuranic elements are removed together in the electrometallurgical reprocessing so that fresh fuel has minor actinides with the plutonium. Simplification was a major design objective of the AP1000, in overall safety systems, normal operating systems, the control room, construction techniques, and instrumentation and control systems provide cost savings with improved safety margins. This design change increased the capital cost. The IAEA safety target for future plants is 1x10-5. It is a four-loop design with 257 fuel assemblies and neutron reflector, is simpler, combines active and passive cooling systems in a double containment, and has over 55 GWd/t fuel burn-up. A feature of some new designs is modular construction. Graphite reflector blocks are both inside and around the core. Inherent or full passive safety depends only on physical phenomena such as convection, gravity or resistance to high temperatures, not on functioning of engineered components, but these terms are not properly used to characterise whole reactors. Half the core is replaced every 18 months. The US-APWR was selected by Luminant for Comanche Peak, Texas, a merchant plant. South Africa's Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) was being developed by a consortium led by the utility Eskom, with Mitsubishi Heavy Industries from 2010. Fuel is in the form of TRISO particles less than a millimetre in diameter. 0000002090 00000 n 0000010408 00000 n If a new reactor design results, it would be a competitor for Atmea1. Some engineered systems operate passively, eg pressure relief valves. Another departure is that most will be designed for load-following. In December 2016 Westinghouse requested the NRC to extend the design certification of its AP1000 reactor for five years from 2021 to 2026. Generation I reactors were developed in 1950-60s, and the last one shut down in the UK in 2015. In both, long-term decay heat removal does not rely on electrical power or ultimate heat sink. Gidropress has developed the VVER-600/V-498 for sites such as Kola, where larger units are not required. The reduced moderation means that more fissile plutonium is produced and the breeding ratio is around 1 (instead of about 0.6), and much more of the U-238 is converted to Pu-239 and then burned than in a conventional reactor. In the light of operational experience of the first few reactors it would then apply for renewal of US design certification. The first two are planned for Tsuruga, originally to come online from 2016. The planned APWR+ is 1750 MWe and has full-core MOX capability. Small modular reactors (SMRs) are a further GDA task impending for the ONR. Designs certified as complying with EUR include Westinghouse's AP1000, Gidropress's AES-92 and VVER-TOI, Areva's EPR, Mitsubishi’s EU-APWR and in 2017 KHNP's APR1400 (EU-APR). It is significantly different from preceding BN models, and Rosatom plans to submit the BN-1200 to the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) as a Generation IV design. Perera J. 0000002884 00000 n While retaining the low-pressure heavy water moderator, it incorporates some features of the pressurised water reactor. 0000002539 00000 n Improved safety and performance will raise the capital cost above that of the OPR, but it this will be offset by reduced construction time (40 months instead of 46) due to modular construction. Fuel is initially similar to present LWRs with 5% enrichment and burnable poison, in fact fuel assemblies are "identical to those ... in the AP1000". It is the ninth evolution of the original BWR design licensed in 1957, and was developed from a predecessor design, the SBWR at 670 MWe. With an outlet temperature of 750ºC the pair will produce steam at 566ºC to drive a single steam cycle turbine at about 40% thermal efficiency. The reactor is regarded as mid-sized relative to other modern designs and will be marketed primarily to countries embarking upon nuclear power programs. Highly reliable, less complex safe shutdown systems, particularly ones with inherent or passive safety features; Simplified safety systems that allow more straightforward engineering analysis, operate with fewer operator actions and increase operator comprehension of reactor conditions; Concurrent resolution of safety and security requirements, resulting in an overall security system that requires fewer human actions; Features that prevent a simultaneous breach of containment and loss of core cooling from an aircraft impact, or that inherently delay any radiological release, and; Features that maintain spent fuel pool integrity following an aircraft impact. 0000003925 00000 n This will take India's ambitious thorium program to stage 2, and set the scene for eventual full utilisation of the country's abundant thorium to fuel reactors. Within the reach of developing countries. `` fuel with no requirement high. 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